UNIBO, crises encourage an authoritarian turn
Are inclusive and exclusive protest movements different? What effects do they generate?
Davide Morselli from the University of Lausanne and Stefano Passini, Professor at the University of Bologna have analyzed this topic in a study published in the Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology.
“Inclusive” protest movements are those that concern everybody’s rights, while “exclusive” protests are enacted in favour of one social group.
According to the study, which analyzed the values and behaviours of 52,000 people from 28 European countries, at times of crisis, “exclusive” movements increase and can favour an authoritarian turn.
“Both these types of protest encourage social change” said Passini “and are associated with low levels of trust in the institutions and traditional politics. However, exclusive protests generally tend to attribute less importance to topics such as guaranteeing pluralism of opinion or the preservation of common rights”.
By analyzing the behaviours of the sample examined, the researchers reconstructed the image of a continent where inequality and poverty tend to privilege conservative movements.
In difficult situations, citizens focus on the topics that directly affect them and this is a reason why authoritative and anti-democratic attitudes are more often observed in countries and regions where life conditions are more difficult.
“Contemporary democracies have within themselves attitudes that can lead to authoritative transformations”, concluded Passini. “Especially when strong leaders emerge spurred by repressive feelings, animated by intolerant attitudes towards other social groups”.